Methodological explanations


Innovation Indicators in the Adriatic Region



The aim of gathering and presentation of Innovation Indicators within the PACINNO project is to complement and extend existing evidence on Innovation Systems (e.g. as presented by the European Commission in the Innovation Union Scoreboard), including all countries in the Adriatic area. In particular, data gathering for countries as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro is of particular interest for the project.


Methodology and timing

In summer 2014, the University of Trieste provided PACINNO partners with methodological explanations on data gathering for the Innovation Systems Maps.

Within this activity, PACINNO partners have collected data on their Innovation Systems, according to the Innovation System conceptual framework. In particular, within WP5 the partners collected data in the form of both variables or indicators, meaning:

  • Variables are the raw data collected from different data sources (e.g. R&D expenditure in million euros in country X in year T; or GDP in million euros in country X in year T);
  • Indicators are ratios calculated using two or more variables, either within these maps (e.g. dividing R&D expenditure and GDP, as above) or by external data sources (e.g. data sources already showing the R&D/GDP ratio for country X in year T).

These variables and indicators have been grouped by dimensions which are the building blocks coming from the Innovation System literature. 10 dimensions were identified:

  • General indicators: general economic figures of the countries.
  • Human resources: variables on researchers, R&D personnel, PhD holders.
  • Education system: variables on universities, higher education R&D, quality of education.
  • Public sector: governmental R&D actors, expenditures.
  • Private sector: business R&D actors, expenditures.
  • Funding of innovation: innovation and R&D sources of funding.
  • Innovation linkages: variables on co-patenting, co-publications, collaborations.
  • Entrepreneurship: variables on entrepreneurial dynamics.
  • Scientific output: variables on patents, trademarks, publications.
  • Institutions: variables on business, political, regulatory environments.


Data sources

Data have been collected using multiple secondary data sources. Main ones have been:

  • OECD
  • WIPO

These data sources have been used as a benchmark, as in many cases no data on some countries do exist. Partners have therefore looked for similar data on other (often national) data sources: the Ministry of Research, the National Statistical Office etc., directly contacting them when needed.



Claudio Cozza Research FellowRaw Excel files with national data have been collected until February 2015, when a collection of most reliable data has been sent as project deliverable. The online visualisation of these data on a dedicated webpage was initially presented during the PACINNO Corfu Innovation summit at the beginning of October 2015.

For more information on methodological issues, please contact Dr. Claudio Cozza – Research Fellow